PCB Fabrication: Designing Approaches and Considerations

pcbDesigning and PCB fabrication is considered as an important part in the production of PCBs. This forms an important factor in electronic reliability and performance. The productivity of your printed circuit board along with the serviceability and the assembly will also depend on the main design.

Your main layout should include all of the relevant details and aspects of your PCB design. On the other hand, the network may be produced at a ratio of 2:1, 1:1, or even at a 4:1 scale. Experts recommend you to use a prepared 1:1 scale because this can help you measure the actual distance of one component of the board from the other parts.

In designing and constructing the PCB board itself, you have to closely follow a series of steps so you can be successful in your endeavor.

Initially, you will need to prepare all of the required circuit diagrams. Preparing these beforehand can help you prevent unnecessarily rushing through any of the steps involved. This can also prevent slowing down the entire task of construction just because you do not have a systematic way of going through the entire process.

You also need to list out the components, sizes, and other specifications of the materials that you will use for the PCB fabrication. This will make it easier for you to purchase what you need for the task. Also, this will help in significantly decreasing the chances of buying the wrong components for the PCB.

You may draft this on a graph sheet. After this, you should place all the pads and finish the thin tracks. Place these on your mylor sheet and then on your graph sheet. Using a knife, place the parts along with the screw holes. Fix all of the tracks. You may then keep one component and consider this as the key.

In PCB fabrication, you also need to convert your circuit diagram.

To do this, you should first cut the lines and mount them as soon as you have prepared all of them. You may then list down all of the components and specifications, including the thickness, diameters, code names, and lengths. After this, keeping one of the components as the key aspect is highly advisable. Initially store the key component and the supporting tools along with them. All of the tracks should be set in straight lines. In between the ICs, you should not pass the signal lines. To help you avoid some dislocations for the PCB, you need to mark the pin number of the IC on your layout. You should also keep in mind that you have to keep the length of your conductor as low as possible. Finally, position all of the diodes, resistors, and other types of components parallel to each other.

There are different types of layout approaches that you may utilize in PCB fabrication.

First, you should mark the connectors and the board outlines on a piece of paper. You may then sketch the component outlines using conductor patterns and connecting points.

You have to prepare the layout as initially seen from the side of the component. This will help you avoid any types of confusion in attaching the rest of the components. Your layout should be developed in the signal flow direction.

Among the components, you have to fill the larger ones first before you go for the space of the smaller ones. The output connections, rewiring input, and components should come near your connectors. All of the components that you will use should be placed in a way that will not require desoldering in the long run.

Reasons Why Custom Challenge Coins are Good for Your Business

Challenge coins are initially produced to boost the morale of military members during the World War 1, World War 2, and the Civil War. Custom challenge coins were created to verify the identity of military officers and confirm their affiliation with the US military. In some cases, military challenge coins have saved a number of soldiers from execution. These coins are usually made of metals such as brass, bronze, gold, silver, and even platinum. The emblem, logo, or motto of the distributing organization is usually engraved on the coin. These coins are also used to recognize a military officer’s rank and are usually given when a military officer is promoted. These coins are also used to award exceptional performance and bravery. In some cases, challenge coins are awarded solely for participating in a complex and challenging military mission.

custom challenge coins
Today, custom challenge coins are not only used in military units and organizations. Challenge coins are also used by large and small corporations to boost the morale and create a sense of camaraderie amongst their employees and staff. It is also widely used by civic and non-profit organizations.

If you are having difficulty in strengthening your brand or motivating your employees, then it is high time that you consider producing customized challenge coins for your company. Here are the benefits that you could derive from these customized challenge coins:

1.  Brand Recognition

You could distribute special challenge coins to huge clients and potential customers. Challenge coins were used during the 1824 election to campaign for a candidate. Challenge coins are widely displayed by the holders. This is the reason why challenge coins are great tools for marketing and increasing brand recognition. Challenge coins are amazing devices that could increase brand and company awareness. You can find a lot of coin producers on the internet and you could submit your brand logo as a design.

2.  Team Building

If your team members are not united and do not take pride in being part of your team or organization, then you could give them special limited edition company challenge coins to build solidarity. You could design these coins in such a way that it builds solidarity and a sense of pride in being affiliated with a team. You need to design and produce the coins in such a way that it will bring pride and honor to your employees. If you have an elite member of top sellers, then it is wise to have coins produced only for this team. It will give them a sense of pride and boost their morale. If your employees have high morale, they are happier with their work and they are more productive. They are also going to produce high quality output.

3.  Better employee performance through performance recognition

Most successful companies have mastered the art of making their employees feel important. Recognizing and appreciating great work is the key to many companies’ success. It is not enough that you pay your employees well. It is also necessary to appreciate hard work and excellent performance in small ways. One way to do this is by giving custom challenge coins for a job well done. If your sales agent has exceeded the monthly sales quota, let that agent know how much you appreciate his exemplary performance by giving challenge coins. Appreciating the sacrifices and efforts of your employees will greatly benefit your business. Business analysts believe that happy employees are equal to more output and more profit. Happy employees are also more creative than unhappy ones. Happy employees make the clients happy and when clients are happy, it means that business is well and thriving.

Understanding Funeral Services

Making the final arrangements can be quite heartbreaking because of the sense of loss. To address this sadness, the deceased is given tribute by celebrating his or her life through funeral services.

funeral homeWhat is a good funeral service? Is there a specified plan that must be followed to ensure that the service holds a deeper meaning to all? Some say that the service should be more personal. The service should allow for the celebration of the deceased’s personality. Funeral services all have a general pattern that is usually followed. And based on this pattern, the service is tailor-fitted to the character of the one who passed away. The service is actually a metaphor of life and death.

The services are rich in symbolisms that actually help mourners deal with the grieving process. See how each part of the service symbolizes the life and times of the one who died.

Life Born into God’s Fold

The pastor meets the casket at the entrance of the church and ushers it in. The mourners follow inside. This is the first part of the service that symbolizes man’s entry into God’s presence when he accepts Jesus as his Lord and Savior. Bible verses are read, all relating to life and death. Some services will include songs during readings.

Welcomed into the Presence of God

The minister offers a prayer to mark the beginning of the service. There could be a song offered as tribute to the one who passed away. Sometimes, instead of a song, some symbols are placed on the casket. In some churches, to symbolize God’s welcome, candles are lit ceremonially.

A prayer of forgiveness and emotional healing is offered as well. This helps the bereaved deal with guilt, loneliness and anger caused by the sudden loss. This prayer also makes the congregation ready to listen to the pastor’s message.

The Readings that Celebrate Life

Readings are recited as each is accompanied by a song meaningful to the deceased and the family. Traditionally, the readings (commonly from the Bible) will signify a stage in the life of man. The more modern funeral services will have short messages in between readings.

The Message

The minister’s message, typically, speaks of God’s love and salvation. The message will usually be regarding how the deceased lived his or her life. It should also help the mourners make sense of the loved one’s death. The message should let the bereaved accept death as final and real. At the end of the sermon, the congregation must realize that life goes on.

Prayer of Hope

This prayer is about the hope of resurrection. It holds the promise of being together again in the afterlife. This part of the service is a strong reminder to the mourners that life has ended but the memory of the person lives on.


The pastor offers a prayer of gratitude to God for giving the mourners time to share the deceased’s life when he was still alive. This part emphasizes acceptance of death and life without the loved one who died.


A final prayer is offered before the casket is lowered into the ground. In the case of cremation, a curtain closes around the casket. This part of the funeral services signals the finality of the deceased’s presence. This is the time when those left behind get to say their last goodbyes.

The Burial

The burial signifies closure. This is the reason why families of those who do not have a body to bury hold a memorial service. The service that ends with a burial (or a semblance of it) provides a definite finish.

Each part of the service is very important to help those left behind through their grieving process. Good funeral services are not just made meaningful because of the songs and the readings. The service should help people accept death and celebrate life.

What are “Content Writers”?

A lot of businesses are using the Web as a marketplace. It’s a great marketing tool where it’s possible to reach thousands even billions of people all at the same time! But how exactly are web contents made and managed? This is where content writers come in.

Content writers are professional writers who are responsible basically for everything you can find (and read) on the Internet from blogs to sales copy, press releases, social media posts, etc. Professional writers. Most companies require certain qualifications in this position. Having a degree in content writing may be relevant but others can do away with other writing-related courses such as Journalism, English Majors, and the like. Degrees and certifications are one thing, but it doesn’t always guarantee good write-ups. Having good writing skills is most important in this field. Content writers are hired by companies to publish online materials to serve a purpose whether to give information or to increase sales. That is why creativity, originality and proficient writing skills come in handy. And because they are hired professionals, companies require quality materials to meet the deadlines. Working under time constraints without losing the quality of web contents is an ongoing challenge writers face.

content writerPart of the writing aspect of the job is editing. Though in some cases, there’s a separate editor to do the job. If there’s none, then the writer himself also becomes the editor. Editing can be a messy task. Polishing the write-ups (and probably the web design) in terms of grammar, spelling, choice of words, relevance, and overall tone of the message all fall under this stage. To put it simply, editors make sure that whatever is published online is perfect!

They are expert researchers, too. The topics they are writing about are mostly given by their employers. In other words, they don’t have a choice on the topic preferences but are expected to create something wonderful out of the ordinary because they are paid to do so. That’s why researching is helpful especially in cases where the theme is unfamiliar. One advantage though is that, it expands the writer’s area of preference and expertise which allows development of knowledge and skills through exploration and experience.

Researching on the topic is one thing. Researching on the means on how to successfully publish web contents is another. Content writers are expected to be technology and Internet-savvy. They ought to know how to use various web publishing software and systems to make the contents more engaging and marketable. They are SEO and html experts. They should know how to generate traffic – bringing in more visitors to a website. With the help of research and further studies (possible through online courses), they will be updated on the latest trends and technology to help them with their line of work.

These publishing tools are helpful with the overall design of the website. Content writers are not only writers but are also designers and salespeople. They can see both on the perspective of the company and the clients. In the design of the web contents, they make sure the websites are user-friendly and appealing without sacrificing relevant information. Through their ingenious designs, companies will be able to increase their marketability.

Now that you know all about this job, you might consider venturing into this field. And probably you would like to know if it’s a good choice for a living. Well unfortunately, start-up writers usually don’t get paid much unless they are technical writers or of the same/higher level. But, it’s definitely a good place to start a writing career. And besides, you are doing what you love most – writing! That’s more than enough to keep you motivated!

For the meantime, pile up on experience, knowledge and skills. So that later on, you can demand for a higher salary grade and who knows? Eventually, companies will get in line for your service!

How to Give Inspiring Safety Presentations

presentationIt is understandable that some people do not always look forward to attending safety presentations. They find them boring, not realizing that they can potentially save lives. For some reasons, they just do not like safety and health. Safety trainers do not have to be discouraged, instead they have to break through any barrier and get the audience to realize that the message of the presentation is relevant to them. Here are some ways on how to work with a difficult audience and actually inspire them.

Keep It Real

Safety and health could sometimes be a bit abstract. The best way to oppose this idea is for the safety trainer to base his presentation on actual life experiences. Statistics about work accidents are a good way to provide context, but he has to balance it with the bigger picture of actual events. For example, the trainer can discuss the alarming construction statistics, but then, he could use an example of a real life event about someone whose life was destroyed after a construction site accident. This can make the employees stop and think and get out of their boredom.

Do Not Rant

It can be tempting to have an outburst, especially when considering the effects of accidents such as a financial burden, devastated lives, and overall suffering. However, sometimes, a rational and calm discussion could have a bigger impact. This does not mean that the safety trainer cannot be passionate, but he could just let the truth speak for itself that it is not necessary to yell and risk turning people off.

Make Some Jokes

Safety presentations mean serious business, but this does not mean that the trainer cannot ease the tension by making an unusual joke. Humor can be a good way to set the ball rolling with an uninterested audience. This can also help the employees become more responsive to the ideas introduced to them.

Speak Naturally

One of the keys to a successful safety presentation is to be honest. Remember that the employees may not always know the current safety issues, so the trainer has to fit his message to the crowd. The trainer always has to check the understanding of the employees as they go along if they have any doubt.

Criticize With Hindsight

This technique is effective in almost every kind of presentation. It is the one where the safety trainer can second-guess the comment he might encounter like safety is time-consuming or expensive, then dispute it in advance. For instance, the trainer might want to assure the employees that even though there is an expense needed for safety presentations, it is just a little thing if compared to the expense and time an accident in the workplace can cause. Always remind the employees that workplace accidents cost the US economy $192 billion annually.

Bring It Home

This is a crucial part wherein the safety trainer notices that the employees actually sit straight up and listen to him. During safety presentations, it can sometimes be challenging to make everyone realize the consequences of what they do. It affects not just themselves, but all the people who care for them, especially their family. Perhaps death is a natural occurrence, but it is a difficult thing for many people.

However, when employees are asked to think through how their spouse would feel when they receive a phone call about that sad news, or how their kids would be like to grow up without a parent, it all suddenly begins to be real. This is not to frighten the employees, but sometimes, it is important to emphasize the risks in order for them to make the right choices.